Oral Advice Summaries

CJEO refers all requests for oral advice to the California Judges Association (CJA), which provides ethics advice to judges on the CJA Ethics Committee hotline. (CJEO rule 4(a).) In some cases, CJEO will provide those requesting oral advice with citations to sources that may resolve the issue, but if the cited sources do not resolve the issue for the person requesting advice, CJEO will refer the person to the CJA Ethics Committee hotline. (CJEO rule 4(a)(3).) CJEO will only provide oral advice when a judge or candidate declines to contact CJA, or when an opinion has been issued or is pending from CJEO that will provide a definitive answer. (CJEO rule 4(a)(1) and (2).)

The following are summaries of oral advice CJEO has provided. As with all CJEO opinions, strict confidentiality is maintained and these summaries do not include identifying information about the individuals whose conduct is the subject of the advice.